Charles Manson One of the most notorious assassins of the 20th century, who was most likely the most culturally persistent and perhaps the most impenetrable, died Sunday in Kern County, California. He was 83 years old and was behind bars for most of his life.
He died of natural causes in a hospital, said the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation in a press release
Mr. Manson was a habitual semi-illiterate criminal and a failed musician before attracting irrevocable attention in the late 1960s as a crazy-eyed leader of the Manson family, a murderous group of young movers in California. Convicted of nine murders in all, Mr. Manson was best known for the seven brutal murders collectively called the Tate-LaBianca murders, committed by his supporters on two consecutive nights in August 1969.
The most famous of the victims was Sharon Tate, an actress married to director Roman Polanski. Eight and a half months pregnant, she was killed along with four other people at her home in Benedict Canyon .
The murders of Tate-LaBianca and the seven-month trial that followed were the subject of media coverage febrile. For a frightened and hypnotized audience, the murders, along with their underlying currents of sex, drugs, rock 'n roll and satanism, seemed to be the logical extension of the depraved episode. anti-establishment spirit, which helped define the & # 39; 1960s.
Since then, the Manson family has occupied a dark and persistent place in American culture – and in American commerce. He has inspired pop songs, opera, movies, Internet fan sites, T-shirts, children's wear and half the stage name of rock musician Marilyn Manson ]
It has also been the subject of many non-fiction books, the most famous "Helter Skelter" (1974), by Vincent Bugliosi and Curt Gentry. Mr. Bugliosi was the chief prosecutor of the Tate-LaBianca trial
The Manson family was the focus of attention renewed in 2008, when officials in California, Responding to long speculation about the fact that there were still unexplained victims, searched some of the desert in the Valley of Death. There, in an abandoned place known as the Barker Ranch, Mr. Manson and his followers had been living for some time in the late 1960s. The research found no human remains.
This was a measure of Mr. Manson's hold on his followers, most of the young women who had fled the middle-class houses, that he was not physically present at the precise moment when one of the victims of Tate-LaBianca was killed. Yet his family quickly murdered them on his orders, which, according to many later accounts, was intended to incite an apocalyptic racial war that Mr. Manson called Helter Skelter. It took the name of the title of a Beatles song.
In the decades that followed, Mr. Manson remained an enigma. Was he a paranoid schizophrenic, as some observers have suggested? Was he a sociopath, devoid of human feeling? Was he a charismatic guru, as his followers once believed and his fans always seem to do it?
Or Was It Just Wreck, A Man Whose Life, The New York Times Written in 1970 "stands as a monument to parental neglect and the failure of the public correctional system"
Unnamed Maddox, as Mr. Manson was officially known, was born on November 12, 1934 to a 16-year-old single mother in Cincinnati. (Many accounts give the wrong date as November 11.) Her mother, Kathleen Maddox, has often been described as having been a prostitute. What is certain, according to the book of Mr. Bugliosi and other sources, is that she was a great drinker who lived on the fringes of society with a series of 39, men
Mr. Manson apparently has never known his biological father. His mother briefly married another man, William Manson, and gave his young son the name of Charles Milles Manson.
Kathleen often disappeared for long periods. Charles was 5 years old, for example, she was sent to jail for stealing a gas station – letting him bounce among relatives in Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. She was released when Charles was 8 years old and took over, but only kept it for a few years.
As early as the age of 12, Charles was placed in a chain of reform schools. At an institution, he held a razor at the throat of a boy and raped him.
Often escaping, he committed burglary, auto theft and armed robbery, landing between detention centers for minors and possibly federal correctional homes. He was released on parole at age 19, in May 1954.
Starting in the mid-1950s, Manson, living most of the time in Southern California, served on a variety of occasions as a parking attendant, parking attendant, car thief, foreman and pimp. During this time, he was in and out of prison.
He was married twice: in 1955 to Rosalie Jean Willis, a teenage waitress, and a few years later to a young prostitute named Leona . Both marriages ended in a divorce.
M. It was believed that Manson had fathered at least two children over the years: at least one with one of his wives, and at least one one with one of his wives. The exact number, names and location of his children – a subject around which the rumor and the urban legend have long coalesced – could not be confirmed. 
By In March 1967, while Mr. Manson, then 32 years old, was released from his last period of detention, he had passed more than half of his life in a correctional facility. Upon his release, he moved to the Bay Area and finally settled in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, the hippiedom's nerve center, just in time for the summer of love.
There, espousing a philosophy that was an idiosyncratic mix of Scientology, hippie anti-authoritarianism, Beatles lyrics, the book of Revelation and the Hitler's writings, he began to draw into its orbit the young, rootless followers who would become known as the Manson Family
Mr. Manson had learned to play guitar in prison and hoped to make it a singer-songwriter. His voice was once compared to that of the young Frankie Laine, a crooner who grew in the 1930s.
On the contrary, Manson's words were often about sex and death, but in the 1960s it did not come out very well. (The songs that he wrote were then recorded by Guns N Roses and Marilyn Manson.) Once made famous, Mr. Manson himself released several albums, including "LIE", released in 1970, and "Live at San Quentin", released in 2006
With his followers – a free and changing band of a dozen or so more – Mr. Manson left San Francisco for Los Angeles. They stayed for a while at Dennis Wilson, the Beach Boys' drummer. Mr Manson hoped that the association would help him land a registration contract, but none was materializing. (The Beach Boys later recorded a song, "Never Learn Not To Love", which was based on the one written by Mr. Manson, although Mr. Wilson, who sang it, gave him new lyrics and a new title – Manson had called it "Cease to Exist" – and took credit for writing it.)
The Manson family then moved to the Spahn Movie Ranch, a city in the Old West located north of Los Angeles. Since then, it has fallen into ruins. The group then moved to Death Valley, eventually settling at Barker Ranch
The location of the desert would protect the family, thought Mr. Manson apparently, in the clash of races that he thought inevitable. He openly professed his hatred of blacks, and he believed that when Helter Skelter came, blacks would annihilate whites. Then, unable to govern themselves, the blacks turn to the Manson family, who would have circled the conflict in deep underground holes in the desert.
At one point, Mr. Manson seems to have decided to help Helter Skelter. Late in the night of August 8, 1969, he sent four family members – Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, Charles Watson, and Linda Kasabian – to Tate's home in the Hollywood Hills. Mr. Manson knew the house: Terry Melcher, a well-known record producer with whom he had worked without success, had already lived there.
Coming after midnight on August 9, Ms. Atkins, Ms. Krenwinkel, and Mr. Watson entered the house while Ms. Kasabian was waiting outside. Through a frenzied combination of gunfire, stabbing, knocks and hangings, they murdered Ms. Tate and four other people in the house and in the field: Jay Sebring, a Hollywood hairdresser; Abigail Folger, heiress of the Folger coffee fortune; Voytek (also spelled Wojciech) Frykowski, Mrs. Folger's boyfriend; and Steven Parent, an 18-year-old visitor. Mrs. Tate's husband, Mr. Polanski, was in London at the time
Before leaving, Mrs. Atkins scribbled the word "pig" with blood on the front door of the house; In Mr. Manson's particular logic, the murders were supposed to resemble the work of black militants.
The next day, August 10, Mr. Manson and a half-dozen followers went to a Los Angeles home that He seemed to have chosen at random. Inside, Mr. Manson tied up the residents – a wealthy grocer named Leno LaBianca and his wife, Rosemary – before leaving. After his departure, several family members stabbed the couple to death. The sentences "Death to Pigs" and "Healter Skelter", misspelled, were scribbled with blood on the scene.
The seven murders are not resolved. month. Then, in the fall of 1969, the police closed down on the Manson family after Ms. Atkins, in prison on a charge of unrelated murder, boasted about her murders.
[19459009 On June 15, 1970, Mr. Manson, Ms. Atkins, Ms. Krenwinkel, and a fourth member of the family, Leslie Van Houten, were tried for murder. Ms. Kasabian, who had been present both nights but stated that she had not participated in the killings, became the star witness of the prosecution and received immunity. Mr. Watson, who escaped to Texas, was tried and convicted separately
During the trial, the bizarre became routine. On one occasion, Mr. Manson threw himself on the judge with a pencil. On another, he hit his lawyer in open court. At one point, Mr. Manson appeared in court with an "X" engraved on his forehead; his co-defendants quickly followed. (Mr. Manson then carved the X in a swastika, which was flagrant after the fact.)
Outside the courthouse, a small group of songs the family members have been watching. One of them, Lynette Fromme, nicknamed Squeaky, would make herself headlines in 1975 when she would try to assassinate President Gerald R. Ford
25, 1971, after nine days of deliberation, the jury declared Mr. Manson, Ms. Atkins and Ms. Krenwinkel guilty of seven counts of murder each. Ms. Van Houten, who was present only at the murders of LaBianca, was convicted of two counts of indictment. All four were also convicted of conspiracy to commit murder.
On March 29, the jury voted the death sentence on the four defendants. In 1972, after the death penalty was temporarily banned in California, their sentences were reduced to life imprisonment
Mr. Manson was convicted separately of two other murders: those of Gary Hinman, a musician killed by members of the Manson family at the end of July 1969, and Donald Shea, a stuntman of Barker Ranch killed in August. In total, Mr. Manson and seven family members were eventually convicted of one to nine murders each.
Incarcerated in a series of prisons over the years, Mr. Manson spent time playing guitar, doing housework and making scorpions and spiders out of his socks. His notoriety made him a target: In 1984, he was treated for second- and third-degree burns after being sprayed with a paint thinner by a fellow and burned.
Manson was denied a dozen times, the last time in 2012. Most of the other condemned family members remain in prison. Mrs. Atkins died in prison in 2009, at age 61, from natural causes.
The Manson family was a source of inspiration for the television series "Aquarius", aired on NBC in 2015 and 2016. A drama from the time in the late 60s, David Duchovny embodied a Los Angeles police detective who ran into Mr. Manson (played by British actor Gethin Anthony) during the investigation into the disappearance of a teenager
Until the end of his life, Mr. Manson denied ordering the Tate- LaBianca murders. Moreover, as he answered a question he was often asked, he was in any case remorseful.
He said in 1986 an interview in prison with journalist Charlie Rose
] "So, did you care?" Rose asked, citing Ms. Tate and her unborn child.
"Care?" Answered Manson.
It "What does it mean," attention "?
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